Plants have tissues to transport water, nutrients and minerals.
This table explains what is transported by the xylem and phloem:
|Tissue||What is moved||Process|
|Xylem||Water and minerals||Transpiration stream|
|Phloem||Sucrose and amino acids||Translocation|
Mature xylem consists of elongated dead cells, arranged end to end to form continuous vessels (tubes).
Mature xylem vessels:
Phloem consists of living cells arranged end to end. Unlike xylem, phloem vessels contain cytoplasm, and this goes through holes from one cell to the next.
Phloem transports sucrose and amino acids up and down the plant. This is called translocation. In general, this happens between where these substances are made (the sources) and where they are used or stored (the sinks).
This means, for example, that sucrose is transported:
Applied chemicals, such as pesticides, also move through the plant by translocation.