Organisms are made up of cells. Most organisms are multicellular and have cells that are specialised to do a particular job. Microscopes are needed to study cells in detail.

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Most animal and plant cells are 0.01 – 0.10 mm in size. The smallest thing seen with the naked eye is about 0.05 mm.

For all cells we need a microscope to see them in any detail.

The best unit to measure most cells is the micrometre, symbol μm.

For some sub-cellular structures, for instance ribosomes, or organisms such as viruses, it’s best to use a smaller unit – the nanometre, symbol nm.

One metre can be broken down into the following measurements:

Millimetre, mm | Micrometre, μm | Nanometre, nm | |
---|---|---|---|

\[\frac{1}{1000}\; metre\] | \[\frac{1}{1000}\; millimetre\] | \[\frac{1}{1000}\; micrometre\] | |

Division of a metre as a fraction | \[\frac{1}{1000}\; metre\] | \[\frac{1}{1\: 000\: 000}\; metre\] | \[\frac{1}{1\: 000\: 000\: 000}\; metre\] |

Division of a metre in standard form | 1 × 10^{-3} m | 1 × 10^{-6} m | 1 × 10^{-9} m |

When writing and working with very large or very small numbers, we use standard form.

Standard form shows the size of numbers as powers of ten.

Standard form numbers are written as:

- A × 10
^{n} - A is a number greater than one but less than 10
^{n}is the index or power, always in powers of 10

- A population of 120 000 000 microorganisms could be written as 1.2 × 10
^{8}. - This number can be written as 120 000 000.0.
- If the decimal place is moved eight spaces to the left we get 1.2.
- So we put x 10
^{8}after 1.2 to show this. - Because the original number is greater than one metre the minus sign before the 8 is not needed.
- It makes a very large number easier to write down.

- A red blood cell's diameter of 7 μm or 0.000007 m could be written as 7 × 10
^{-6}m. - This number can be written as 0.000007.
- If we move the decimal place six spaces to the right we get 7.0
- So we put x 10
^{-6}after 7 to show this. - Because the original number is less than one metre we put a minus sign before the 6.
- It makes a very small number easier to write down.

In a book, a micrograph of the cell measured 100 mm.

The real size of the cell shown is 0.05 mm.

To calculate the magnification:

\[magnification = \frac{100\; mm}{0.05\; mm} = 2000\]

It’s important to work in the same units when calculating magnification. Sizes of most cells are given in micrometres, symbol μm.

To calculate magnification using the same formula in micrometres, convert the measurement of the cell above from mm into micrometres:

Cell measurement = 100 mm

1 mm = 1000 μm

100 mm = 100 x 1000 μm

100 mm = 100 000 μm

The real size of the cell above in micrometres is 50 μm.

The magnification of the image:

\[magnification = \frac{100\; 000 \; μm}{50\; μm} = 2000\]

From this we know that the image has been magnified 2000 times.