As employment declines in the countryside people move to urban areas to find work. In LEDCs farmers may be encouraged to grow cash crops, reducing the availability of land for subsistence farming. Natural disasters, such as drought or flooding may also encourage migration.
In MEDCs some people move out of urban areas to benefit from cheaper housing and more green space. Improvements in transport have allowed this to happen. This puts pressure on rural areas that have good links with nearby urban areas.
In MEDCs many people move home when they retire. They no longer need to live close to work. Also they may downsize into a smaller home, or move to a quieter environment.
In national parks and other areas in the UK wealthy urban residents may buy a second home to use in their leisure time. This pushes up the price of homes in the area and also means fewer homes available for the local residents.
Forest clearance, mining and cash crops all put pressure on rural areas. This is especially seen in LEDCs. There are many effects as a result, one is soil erosion from the areas that used to be forests, or from the areas used for farming.
There are also pressures to use rural land to build on. In the UK large retail centres and new homes are sometimes built on greenfield sites.
Roads are built in rural areas to help the movement of people to and from urban areas. Roads are also built to gain access to mining sites and logging sites. In places like the Amazon rainforest in Brazil, this has put pressure on the ecosystem, and has allowed greater access by farmers into fragile areas.