# Rate of reaction

The rate of a reaction is a measure of how quickly a is used up, or a is formed.

### Collision theory

For a chemical reaction to happen:

• must collide with each other
• the particles must have enough energy for them to react

A collision that produces a reaction is called a . The is the minimum amount of needed for a collision to be successful. It is different for different reactions.

Colliding particles

1. Two pairs of particles move towards each other

There are different ways to determine the rate of a reaction. The method chosen usually depends on the reactants and products involved, and how easy it is to measure changes in them.

The mean rate of reaction can be calculated using either of these two equations:

$mean~rate~of~reaction = \frac{quantity~of~reactant~used}{time~taken}$

$mean~rate~of~reaction = \frac{quantity~of~product~formed}{time~taken}$

### Measuring mass

The change in of a reactant or product can be followed during a reaction. This method is useful when carbon dioxide is a product which leaves the reaction container. It is not suitable for hydrogen and other gases with a small , Mr.

The units for rate are usually g/s or g/min.

### Measuring volume

The change in of a reactant or product can be followed during a reaction. This method is useful when a gas leaves the reaction container. The volume of a gas is measured using a gas syringe, or an upside down or measuring cylinder.

The units for rate are usually cm3 s-1 or cm3 min-1.

Two ways to measure the volume of a gas produced in a reaction

### Graphs

The rate of reaction can be analysed by plotting a graph of mass or volume of product formed against time. The graph shows this for two reactions.

The steeper the line, the greater the rate of reaction. Faster reactions - where the line becomes horizontal - finish sooner than slower reactions

The of the line is equal to the rate of reaction:

• the steeper the line, the greater the rate of reaction
• fast reactions - seen when the line becomes horizontal - finish sooner than slow reactions

### Units for rates of reaction - Higher

The rate of a chemical reaction can also be measured in Mol s-1.