There was some progress in the area of surgery. The Middle Ages was a time of constant warfare, so surgeons got lots of practice and:
Medieval surgeons were very good at practical first aid and even attempted some internal surgery. They could:
It used to be thought that medieval towns were filthy, without drains, sewers or rubbish collections.
However, modern historians have found out that:
Nowadays, historians think that medieval towns were not as dirty as Early Modern towns – but the sights and smells of a medieval town would still probably have made you feel sick.