The table summarises some typical physical properties of metals and non-metals.
|High melting points||Low boiling points|
|Good conductors of electricity||Poor conductors of electricity|
|Good conductors of heat||Poor conductors of heat|
|High density||Low density|
Some elements have properties that are not typical. For example:
A substance with a high density means it has a high mass for its size.
Ductile means that a substance can be drawn out into a long wire without snapping or breaking.
The reactions of elements are related to the electron arrangement of their atoms (and so to their atomic number). Electrons in the outer shells are lost, gained or shared in reactions. Elements in a group have similar chemical properties because they have the same number of electrons in their outer shells.
|Reaction||Electrons in outer shells||Type of bonding formed|
|metal + non-metal||Lost from metal atoms, gained by non-metal atoms||Ionic|
|non-metal + non-metal||Pairs of electrons shared||Covalent|