In Germany in 1914, at the beginning of World War One, there had been great enthusiasm for war, but that was not the case in 1939.
The German people reacted to the outbreak of the Second World War with resignation.
They could still remember the pain of their surrender in 1918 and their humiliating punishment in the Treaty of Versailles.
Many Germans also feared a repeat of the shortages and huge loss of life experienced during World War One.
The vast majority of Germans reluctantly supported the war and signed up to play their part in the war effort.