A **translation** is a movement of the graph either horizontally parallel to the -axis or vertically parallel to the -axis.

The graph of is the same as the graph of . Writing graphs as **functions** in the form is useful when applying translations and reflections to graphs.

If , then . Here we are adding to the whole function.

The addition of the value represents a vertical translation in the graph. If is positive, the graph translates upwards. If is negative, the graph translates downwards.

represents a translation through the vector .

If then .

Here we add to , not to the whole function. This time we will get a horizontal translation. If is positive then the graph will translate to the left. If the value of is negative, then the graph will translate to the right.

represents a translation through the vector .