The last ice age in the UK took place around 18,000 years ago. During this time, temperatures remained low throughout the year and ice sheets and glaciers covered the north of the UK and other parts of Europe.
Glaciers shape the land through processes of erosion, weathering, transportation and deposition, creating distinct landforms.
The two main types of erosion are:
Freeze-thaw weathering is the main type of weathering. During the day when temperatures are higher, the snow melts and water enters the cracks in the rock. When the temperature drops below 0°C the water in the crack freezes and expands by about 9 per cent. This makes the crack larger. As this process is repeated through continual thawing and freezing the crack gets larger over time. Eventually pieces of rock break off.