Opposition from youth

The Meuten

  • The Meuten were gangs of working-class teenagers and young adults.
  • They sympathised with socialist ideology.
  • They were frequently attacked by Nazis, including the Hitler Youth.

The Swing Kids

  • A youth movement that started in Hamburg in 1939 and spread to Berlin and other German cities.
  • The movement was a challenge to Hitler announcing that all German adolescents had to join a Nazi youth movement.
  • They challenged the Nazi image of youth by growing their hair and wearing fashionable clothes.
  • They also listened to swing music, which was seen by the Nazis as Black music and met at secret dance halls. This often led to clashes with the Hitler Youth and the security forces.

The White Rose

  • Formed by students at Munich University. They published anti-Nazi leaflets, but were discovered and executed in 1943.

The Edelweiss Pirates

  • They painted anti-Nazi slogans, sheltered deserters and beat up Nazi officials. In 1944, the Cologne Pirates killed the Gestapo chief.