In 1544, Henry VIII ordered an invasion of Scotland because he wanted to bring to an end to the Auld Alliance (friendship between Scotland and France).
He was also angered that the Treaty of Greenwich (when the Scots agreed that Mary Stuart would marry Henry’s son Edward) had been rejected.
With the government of Scotland favouring France, Henry intended to force the Scots into changing their mind.
Throughout what became known as the ‘Rough Wooing’, the English attacked Edinburgh and Berwick upon Tweed where they burned down houses in the area.
The Scots eventually defeated the English at the Battle of Ancrum Moor in 1545.
Henry VIII died in January, two years later, and was succeeded by his son Edward who continued the attacks on Scotland.
At the Battle of Pinkie in September 1547, a large Scottish army was defeated by the English.
Important Scottish nobles and Catholic clergymen who had joined the Scottish army were killed, and much of southern Scotland came under English occupation.