The future of Scotland

Bruce and his supporters continued to fight for Scottish independence:

  • He made raids into northern England.
  • He sent his brother Edward Bruce to fight the English in Ireland.

Neil Oliver describes Bruce's eventual victory and Scottish independence.

The Declaration of Arbroath and the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton

Bruce realised that he would have to secure Scotland’s independence peacefully.

First he had to get support from the Church. In 1320, the nobles of Scotland sent a letter to Pope John XXII to argue for Scotland’s freedom from the English. The letter became known as the 'Declaration of Arbroath' and was important for two main reasons:

  • It explained why Scotland should be independent.
  • It showed that the nobles supported Bruce as their King.

The Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton

  • Edward II was a weak King and was eventually deposed in 1327.
  • Edward III, still a child at the time, was crowned as the new King of England.
  • Bruce used this unstable time to send an invasion force to England.
  • As a result, the English had to request a truce.
  • In 1328, the two sides signed the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton.
  • Robert the Bruce was recognised as the King of Scots.
  • Scottish independence was guaranteed.
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