A non-communicable disease is not passed from one organism to another. They are not infectious.
They can be:
Many people drink alcohol in moderation and are unlikely to suffer serious harm.
Binge drinking can cause harm to the individual and others. Binge drinking is when a large amount of alcohol is consumed over a short period of time.
Drinking alcohol excessively over a long period of time can damage the liver and other organs.
Drinking heavily during pregnancy can cause serious brain damage to the foetus, known as foetal alcohol syndrome.
|Cigarette substance||Harmful effect|
|Tar||Causes bronchitis (narrowing of the bronchi and bronchioles).|
|Causes emphysema (alveolar damage reducing the surface area of gas exchange).|
|Causes lung cancer (abnormal cell division).|
|Nicotine||Addictive and affects heart rate.|
|Carbon monoxide||Combines with red blood cells reducing their oxygen carrying capacity.|
Smoking bans have been effective at reducing passive smoking and encouraging people to stop smoking.
E-cigarettes are also helping people to stop smoking. However, some people argue that the inclusion of nicotine can encourage some to start smoking.