Evolution is the process by which living things change over time, over many generations. These changes are as a result of changes to the genome (genomic variations).

So how do these changes to the genome arise? There is no natural process that creates entirely new genes. Therefore, all new genes must be the result of changes to the existing pool of genes. Changes to the pool of genes can arise by one of the following:

  • gene transfer
  • natural selection
  • speciation