In 1646, Charles surrendered.
In 1647, the army drew up the 'Heads of the Proposals', a list of suggestions for a settlement with Charles.
In May 1648 Charles made a deal with the Scots and started a second civil war. After Cromwell had defeated Charles a second time – at the Battle of Preston in August 1648 – Parliament put him on trial for treason.
Charles was condemned as a "tyrant, traitor, murderer and public enemy to the Commonwealth of England" and executed on 30 January 1649.