Genetic sequences

All the new cells produced by cell division contain DNA.

DNA contains a sequence of chemicals. The sequence is unique in every individual’s DNA.

A DNA strand showing the genetic sequence.

Some DNA sequences are coded instructions for making proteins such as enzymes, hormones, muscle, hair and nails.

A DNA sequence stored in the nucleus sends instructions to structures in the cytoplasm. Free amino acids are joined together to make protein.

A DNA sequence that instructs a cell to make a protein is called a gene.

In animal, fungal and plant cells, DNA is stored in the nucleus. It is packaged up into chromosomes because there is so much of it. Proteins are made in the cytoplasm of the cell.

A section of a nucleus showing the chomosomes included in it, magnified to show a dna strand within one of the chromosomes.