Factors affecting enzyme activity

Temperature

As temperature increases to the optimum, the kinetic energy of the enzyme and substrate increases, causing more collisions between the enzyme and substrate.

Enzyme factor temperature

This causes the formation of more enzyme-substrate complexes, leading to an increase in enzyme activity.

An increase in temperature beyond the optimum causes the enzyme’s active site to become denatured.

This means the active site loses its important shape and can no longer form enzyme-substrate complexes, leading to a decrease in enzyme activity.

Enzymes denaturation

Denaturation is a permanent change.

Some enzymes (e.g. in biological washing powders) are thermostable, meaning they can work at a wide range of temperatures.

This allows biological washing powder to be used at low temperatures that saves energy and money.