There are several different ways of dyeing fabrics:
Dyeing usually takes place in large vats before being heated and dried.
Commercial printing prints pattern onto the top surface of fabrics. There are a variety of printing methods available:
A screen with the stencil of the pattern has dye wiped over it to produce an accurate, repeatable print. A separate screen for each colour is required.
Roller printing can be used for long, striped patterns. A roller for each colour has a pattern embossed on it. As the fabric passes through, the pattern is added.
Sublimation ink is printed onto coated paper. Once heated, the image is transferred onto fabric.
Digital printing allows fabric to be printed on directly from an inkjet head. It is expensive but offers a wide range of colours.