These genes are described as sex-linked.
The other 22 pairs of chromosomes have the same genes in the same position on both chromosomes.
The difference in size between the X chromosome and the shorter Y chromosome means some genes appear only on the X chromosome.
The effect of sex-linked genes is more obvious in males because the X chromosome can contain genes the Y does not.
A female will have another allele on her other X chromosome which, if dominant, would mask the effect of a recessive allele.