Sandra’s reflection on her childhood memories highlights that homelessness has been a problem in Glasgow for many years. She remembers:
folk on the benches then, down-and-outs, faces shrunk wi drink and neglect, an auld cap lyin hauf-heartedly by their sides
Sandra becomes aware that the issue has increased over the years. The people now sleeping in the square:
werenae just auld drunks
This realisation highlights that there are multiple reasons for homelessness, suggesting it is a systemic problem.
The commercialism of Christmas as witnessed by Sandra demonstrates the imbalance of society. Materialism is more highly prioritised than charity. Numerous homeless people are left on the street without help, while people around them continue their Christmas shopping.