A salt and hydrogen are produced when acids react with metals. In general:
acid + metal → salt + hydrogen
hydrochloric acid + magnesium → magnesium chloride + hydrogen
2HCl(aq) + Mg(s) → MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)
Hydrogen is collected in a test tube during the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. Describe the laboratory test for hydrogen.
Put a lighted splint near the mouth of the test tube. Hydrogen ignites with a squeaky pop.
A salt, water and carbon dioxide are produced when acids react with carbonates. In general:
acid + carbonate → salt + water + carbon dioxide
hydrochloric acid + copper(II) carbonate → copper(II) chloride + water + carbon dioxide
2HCl(aq) + CuCO3(s) → CuCl2(aq) + H2O(g) + CO2(g)
Carbon dioxide is given off during the reaction between copper carbonate and hydrochloric acid. Describe the laboratory test for carbon dioxide.
Bubble the gas through limewater. Carbon dioxide turns limewater milky or cloudy white.
The names of salts have two parts:
For example, copper(II) sulfate is made when copper oxide reacts with sulfuric acid.
Name the salt formed when magnesium reacts with dilute nitric acid.
Name the salt formed when calcium carbonate reacts with dilute phosphoric acid.
Name the salt formed when ammonia solution reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid.