Physical consequences of earthquakes

Liquefaction

Liquefaction is when an earthquake takes place and shakes the wet soil. The energy released by the earthquake causes the water within the soil (and rock) to rise up to the surface and can turn the soil into a liquid mud.

As a result of this, foundations will be compromised and buildings will either sink or tip over.

Photograph of Niigata earthquake in Japan

Niigata earthquake in Japan

Tsunamis

A tsunami is a large wave that is created due to an underwater earthquake sending its shockwaves into the water which causes a surge of water to build up and make its way towards the coastline.

The energy transferred into a tsunami wave can often be transported for thousands of miles across an ocean.

Illustration showing the stages of a tsunami