The USA and the Soviet Union’s opposing political and economic beliefs caused the Cold War. NATO and the Warsaw Pact were established. Both competed in an arms race.
In what ways were the USA and USSR different?
The USA was Communist and the USSR was Capitalist
The USSR was Communist and the USA was Capitalist
The USSR was Democratic and the USA was a Dictatorship
Who used the phrase The Iron Curtain and what does it mean?
The Iron Curtain
Kennedy used the phrase. He referred to the divide between East and West Berlin which was to be divided by an Iron Curtain.
Stalin used the phrase. He meant that an Iron curtain had fallen between the Eastern European nations and the Western European nations.
Winston Churchill used the phrase. He meant that an Iron curtain separated the democratic Capitalist Western nations of Europe from the communist Eastern Europe under Soviet control.
Where did the two peace conferences take place at the end of WWII?
Yalta and Potsdam
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Berlin and Paris
What was the Truman Doctrine?
It was a decision made by the Allies to try to break through the Iron Curtain and gain influence in the Eastern Bloc countries
It was the US government's policy of 'Containment' - to stop communism spreading further
It was the Soviet policy of containment. The Soviets agreed to try to contain Capitalism and prevent it from spreading to Eastern Europe.
What was Marshall Aid?
Marshall Aid was money and materials given to the countries of Europe to help them rebuild. It was believed that countries were more likely to turn communist if they were struggling economically.
Marshall Aid was the money and materials sent to Eastern Europe to help entice them to get rid of communism and adopt capitalism and democracy
Marshall Aid was the money and materials sent to South America and Africa in an attempt to contain communism in these continents
What was the Buffer Zone?
The area of Eastern Europe - made up of the countries that the USSR occupied at the end of the war eg Poland and Czechoslovakia
The area of Europe which kept France and Germany separate during the Cold War
An area of Western Europe controlled by the USA and the Allies
What was Stalin's reaction to the introduction of Marshall Aid?
Stalin saw the introduction of Marshall Aid as a positive thing. He planned to trade with the countries of Western Europe and this would improve their economies.
Stalin was against the introduction of Marshall Aid because this was in direct competition with planned Soviet Aid
Stalin saw the introduction of Marshall Aid as a threat. He wanted to keep Europe weak to protect the USSR.
Which routes into Berlin did the Soviets block?
Rail, road and sea routes
Rail, road and canal routes
Rail, road and air routes
What was the outcome of the Berlin Blockade?
West-Berliners decided to go over to the Soviet side. They rejected capitalism and democracy.
The Americans failed to continue to supply West Berlin and were forced to withdraw in 1948
The Soviets failed to prevent the supplies being brought in by aeroplane and they lifted the blockade in 1949
Why was NATO set up in 1949?
As a military alliance to protect Western European countries from the threat of communism and a Soviet attack
As an alliance to provide economic aid and to help prevent communism from spreading
As a Soviet military base with missiles prepared to attack the USA and the countries of the Eastern Bloc if a crisis arose
Why was the Warsaw Pact set up in 1955?
As a trade organisation between all the Eastern European countries
As a military organisation of Eastern European countries, dominated by the Soviets
As a Western military alliance prepared to attack the Soviets and the countries of Eastern Europe if a crisis arose
What does M.A.D stand for?
Mutually Assured Destruction
Militarily Assured Destruction
Massive Assured Destruction
When did the Soviet Union develop its first atomic bomb?
When was the first Hydrogen bomb tested?
What act started the Cold War?
Disagreements between Stalin and Truman at The Potsdam Conference
USA dropping atomic bombs on Japan
Both USA and USSR sought to make their ideology dominant all over the world