If someone does not produce enough insulin to control their blood glucose concentration they have diabetes.
|Type 1 diabetes||Type 2 diabetes|
|Develops||In childhood.||In older people (a progressive disease linked to poor diet/lack of exercise/obesity).|
|Effect||Pancreas stops producing insulin.||Pancreas gradually produces less insulin. Insulin not as effective.|
|Treatment||Control carbohydrate intake.||Control carbohydrate intake and increase exercise in order to lose weight.|
|Injection of insulin.||Tablets.|
|Injection of insulin.|
|Future||Increase in numbers of sufferers due to an increase in obesity. Becoming more common in young people.|
If too much insulin is injected or not enough food is eaten regularly, the blood glucose concentration can drop too low and a hypoglycaemic attack (a ‘hypo’) may occur, resulting in unconsciousness/coma.
If blood glucose concentrations remain too high over a long period (if the individual has been diabetic for a long time or their diabetes is undiagnosed or uncontrolled), serious long-term effects can arise.
These complications are due to high blood glucose concentrations damaging the capillaries that supply that part of the body.