Other theories of causes of crime

There are a number of other theories that have been put forward that do not necessarily arise from the nature or nurture debate. These include:

  • labelling – people become further involved in criminal activity when they are labelled as criminals, eg once they have a criminal record or after serving a prison sentence
  • sexism – the expectations that society has of men and women are different. This means that men, for example, may be expected to 'stand up for themselves' in a way that women are not. Some criminologists argue that the influence of 'gender roles' is an important cause of criminality

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