The table summarises some typical properties of metals and non-metals.
|High melting points||Low melting points|
|Good conductors of electricity||Poor conductors of electricity|
|Good conductors of heat||Poor conductors of heat|
|High density||Low density|
Some elements have properties that are not typical. For example:
A substance with a high density means it has a high mass for its size.
Ductile means that a substance can be drawn out into a long wire without snapping or breaking.
In metals, the electrons leave the outer shells of metal atoms, forming positive metal ions and a 'sea' of delocalised electrons. The structure of a solid metal consists of closely packed metal ions, arranged in a regular way to form a metallic lattice structure.
Metallic bonding is the strong electrostatic force of attraction between the metal ions and the delocalised electrons.
Metals are malleable because layers of ions can slide over each other when a force is applied. Metallic bonding allows the metal to change shape without shattering.