# Reference language

A standardised reference language is used in National 5 Computing Science. This language differs from pseudocode in that there is a clear structure that must always be adhered to. It is essential to be able to read and understand this reference language.

Reference language is formal which means, while appearing very similar, it is not pseudocode. It provides everyone studying Computing Science with a standard that must be understood by all.

## Basic elements

### Identifiers

Identifiers should not contain spaces and should always start with a letter. In this example, high score could be identified as:

• highscore
• high_score
• highScore

Arrays can be identified by the inclusion of square brackets. An array of high scores could be identified as:

• highscore[ ]

Array indexing will start from 0 unless otherwise stated.

The following tables contain basic elements of the reference language that can be grouped together easily.

### Operations (Interger and Real data types)

OperationSymbol
Add+
Subtract-
Multiply*
Divide/
Minus-unary
Exponent (to the power of)^

### Operations (Interger only)

OperationSymbol
Modulo/Find the remainder ofmod

### Comparison Operators

OperationSymbol
Equality/Equals=
Inequality/Does not equal≠
Less than<
Less than or equal to≤
Greater than>
Greater than or equal to≥

### Logical Operators

OperationSymbol
Both Required (conjunction)AND
One or the other required (disjunction)OR
Not (negation)NOT