Work done

Work is done when energy is transferred from one store to another. Work is also done when a force causes an object to move. When work is done against frictional forces acting on an object, the object's temperature increases. For example, a person's hands warm up when they are rubbed together repeatedly.

Calculating work done

curriculum-key-fact
To calculate the work done on an object when a force moves it, use the equation: work done = force × distance. W = F \: x

This is when:

  • work done (W) is measured in joules (J)
  • force (F) is measured in newtons (N)
  • distance moved along the line of action of the force (x) is measured in metres (m)

Note that one joule of work is done when a force of 1 N causes a movement of 1 m. So 1 J is equivalent to 1 Nm.

Example

A doctor weighs 600 N. A lift moves her 40 m to the top floor of a hospital. Calculate the work done on the doctor by the lift.

W = F \: x

W = 600~N \times 40 \: m

W = 24,000 \:J \:(or \: 24 \: kJ)

Question

In a scrum, a rugby team pushes the other team backwards 5 m using a force of 1,000 N. Calculate the work done moving the other team.

W = F \: x

W = 1,000 N \times 5 \: m

W = 5,000 \:J \:(or \:5 \:kJ)