Terms of the Paris Peace Treaties

Four other treaties were made with the countries that had helped Germany during the war.

The Treaty of Versailles, however, was the template for these treaties, which were drawn up by officials (not by the Big Three) and which simply followed the principles of the Treaty of Versailles:

  • the defeated countries had to disarm
  • they had to pay reparations
  • they lost land to other countries

Germany: Treaty of Versailles (28 June 1919)

  • Disarmament - Forces limited to 100,000 soldiers, six battleships, no airforce
  • Reparations - this was eventually set at £6600 million. Afterwards, The Dawes and Young Plans re-scheduled Germany's payments
  • Land lost - Poland gained Posen from Germany, and also gained East Prussia. This became known as the Polish Corridor. Alsace-Lorraine were returned to France. Germany lost her colonies

Austria: Treaty of Saint Germain (10 Sept 1919)

  • Disarmament - army limited to a force of 30,000 volunteers, no navy or air force
  • Reparations - Austria did not pay much in reparations as her economy was so weak
  • Land lost - Austro-Hungarian Empire dismantled
    • Tyrol lost to Italy
    • Dalmatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina were lost to Yugoslavia
    • Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Romania all gained land
    • Austria’s population fell from 22 million to around 6 million

Hungary: Treaty of Trianon (4 June 1920)

  • Disarmament - army limited to a force of 35,000 volunteers and three patrol boats
  • Reparations - apart from some shipments of coal, Hungary could not meet the demands for reparations. As a result the payments were suspended
  • Land lost - Austro-Hungarian Empire dismantled.
    • Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Romania all gained land from Hungary.
    • The population of Hungary fell from 21 million to around 7.5 million

Bulgaria: Treaty of Neuilly (27 Nov 1919)

  • Disarmament - army limited to a force of 20,000 volunteers, four torpedo boats, no air force
  • Reparations - set at £100 million
  • Land lost - land lost to Yugoslavia, Romania and Greece

Turkey: Treaty of Sèvres (10 Aug 1920)

  • Disarmament - 50,000 soldiers, seven sailboats and six torpedo boats. No air force
  • Reparations - the economy was to be controlled by the Allies
  • Land lost - the Ottoman Empire was broken up.
    • areas such as Iraq and Palestine became British mandates
    • Syria became a French mandate
    • the Straits of the Dardanelles would be placed under international control
    • Armenia became an independent country

The treaty provoked a backlash in Turkey. Turkish nationalists, led by Kemel Attaturk, rebelled against the Sultan and rejected the treaty. In 1923 a new treaty was signed at Lausanne in Switzerland. This removed foreign control over the economy. Turkey also regained land and some control over the Dardanelles.