Separating insoluble solids
One way to separate a soluble solid from its solution is to make crystals. This involves evaporating the solution to a much smaller volume and then leaving it to cool. As the solution cools, crystals form, and these can be obtained by filtration.
Distillation separates a liquid from a solution. For example, water can be separated from salty water by simple distillation. This method works because the water evaporates from the solution, but is then cooled and condensed in a condenser and collected in a separate container. The salt does not evaporate and so it stays behind.