By autumn 1918 it was clear that Germany would lose World War One. From November onwards a series of events occurred which became known as the German Revolution.
On 3 November at the main German naval base in Kiel frustrated German sailors mutinied instead of following orders to attack the British Royal Navy. The sailor’s mutiny sparked rebellions all over Germany and in a matter of days led to the collapse of the German government which forced the ruling monarch, Kaiser Wilhelm II, to abdicate on 9 November. Following his abdication Friedrich Ebert, leader of the Social Democratic Party (SDP) became Chancellor (the equivalent of Prime Minister in Britain) and took power over Germany.
On 11 November 1918 World War One ended when an armistice was agreed with the Allies (Britain, France and the USA) and Germany surrendered.
In January 1919, elections had given the SPD party the most power. Shortly after, Friedrich Ebert, leader of the SPD became the first democratically chosen President. He and his party (which had won a majority of seats in election) started to draw up a new constitution for Germany. They met in the town of Weimar as Berlin was deemed too unsafe after the Spartacist uprising earlier in the month.
Although a considerable number of deputies (German MPs) voted against it, the new constitution was eventually approved and signed in August 1919. This government eventually became known as the ‘Weimar Republic’.