In developed countries like the UK both birth rates and death rates are low.
Birth rates are low because:
- Women's status has improved.
- Contraception and family planning is more readily available.
- Careers are more important than having a family.
- The cost of raising a family has increased.
- People marry later, so less opportunity to have large families.
- Increased desire for material possessions, eg cars and holidays instead of children.
Death rates are low because of:
- Advances in modern medicine.
- Vaccinations against disease, eg measles.
- Improvements in water and sanitation.
- Enhanced food production and storage.
- Better transport for food.
- Lower infant death rates.
The population in the developed world is therefore fairly stable and neither rising nor falling significantly.