The process of genetic engineering - Higher

The main steps of genetic engineering:

  1. Restriction enzymes are used to isolate the required gene leaving it with sticky ends. Sticky ends are a short section of unpaired bases
  2. A vector, which is usually a bacterial plasmid or a virus, is cut by the same restriction enzyme leaving it with corresponding sticky ends.
  3. The vector and the isolated gene are joined together by ligase enzyme.
  4. The vector inserts the gene into required cells.
  5. The genes are transferred to animal, plant or microorganism cells, during early development, which allows them to develop with the desired characteristics.

This diagram shows how the genetic engineering of insulin works:

Gene from human chromosome responsible for insulin production isolated.  Plasmid isolated from bacterium.  Human gene inserted in plasmid.  Reproduction of bacteria and plasmids result in insulin.The process of genetically modifying bacteria to produce human insulin
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