Between 1841 and 1931, three quarters of a million Scots settled in the rest of the United Kingdom. Rural Scots moved to the industrial cities of Scotland and England. Many Scots moved to England as they had skills that could be used in farming and industry there.
The USA was a popular destination, especially in the second half of the 19th century. The 1860s saw around nine and a half thousand people per year emigrate there. In the 1920s this had risen to around eighteen and a half thousand per year.
Canada was very popular in the second half of the 19th century, with many Scots settling in Ontario and Nova Scotia. Canada became more popular than the USA by the 1920s. New towns were growing and the Scots would be central to their development.
In 1854, Scottish immigrants were the third largest group to settle in Australia after the English and Irish - 36,044 people. Within three years a further 17,000 arrived, lured by the promise of gold. By 1861 the Scotland-born population of Victoria reached 60,701.
Scottish emigration to New Zealand is recorded from the 1830s and was heavily concentrated in South Island. Otago province was specifically promoted as a Scots Presbyterian colony to attract emigrants.
Members of the Free Church of Scotland were important in the planning of the settlement of Dunedin, or ‘New Edinburgh’, first surveyed and laid out in 1846.