The future of Scotland

Bruce and his supporters continued to fight for Scottish independence, making raids into northern England and sending his brother, Edward Bruce, to fight the English in Ireland.

Edward II mounted several invasions of Scotland in the years after Bannockburn, but they all ended in defeat.

Neil Oliver describes Bruce's eventual victory and Scottish independence.

The Declaration of Arbroath

Bruce realised that he would have to secure Scotland's independence through diplomacy.

First he had to get support from the Church. In 1320, the nobles of Scotland sent a letter to Pope John XXII to argue for Scotland's freedom from the English. The letter became known as the 'Declaration of Arbroath' and was important for a number of reasons:

  • It explained why Scotland should be independent.
  • It attempted to justify the past actions of Bruce.
  • It showed that the nobles supported Bruce as their King.

The Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton

Edward II was a weak King and was eventually deposed in 1327.

Edward III, still a child at the time, was crowned as the new king of England.

Bruce used this unstable time to send an invasion force to England.

As a result, the English had to request a truce.

In 1328, the two sides signed the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton. This treaty contained two important statements:

  • Robert the Bruce was recognised as the King of Scots.
  • Scottish independence was guaranteed.
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