It is important in this core practical to use a range of equipment and methods to separate chemical mixtures. This includes the safe use and careful handling of substances, and the safe use of appropriate heating devices.
This outlines one way to carry out the practical. Eye protection must be worn.
To investigate the composition of inks using simple distillation.
1. Describe the appearance of the distilled solvent.
2. If your apparatus included a thermometer at the top of the column, record the maximum temperature reached as the solvent was collected.
3. Explain any difference in the appearance of the solvent and ink.
4. If you measured the maximum temperature, compare this to the boiling points of possible solvents. These could include water, ethanol and propanol.
5. Discuss whether you can identify the solvent from the ink.
Evaluate the hazards and the precautions needed to reduce the risk of harm. For example:
|Hazard||Possible harm||Possible precaution|
|Hot apparatus||Skin burns||Allow apparatus to cool before touching it|
|Bunsen burner flame||Skin burns||Keep hair and clothes tucked in|
|Bunsen burner flame||Fire||Do not bring flammable solvents near to the flame|