# Series circuits

In series circuits, are connected one after another in a single loop.

## Circuit rules

An will pass through every component on its way round the circuit. If one of the bulbs is broken then will not be able to flow round the circuit. If one bulb goes out, they all go out.

### Current in series

A circuit is one loop; all electrons in that loop form one current. An will measure the same current wherever it is placed in the circuit: This is when:

• current (I) is measured in amps (A)

### Potential difference in series

The current will transfer from the power supply to the components in the circuit. Since energy has to be conserved, all of the source energy is shared between the components. Since is used to measure changes in energy, the potential difference supplied is equal to the total of the potential differences across all other components: This is when:

• Potential difference (V) is measured in volts (v)

### Resistance in series

If are connected in series, the current must flow through both of them, so the resistance is increased. To find the total resistance, the are added together: This is when:

• resistance (R) is measured in ohms (Ω)
In series circuits:
• current is the same through each component
• the total potential difference of the power supply is shared between the components
• the total resistance of the circuit is the sum of individual resistors