physical barrier methods such as condoms and diaphragms, which prevent the sperm reaching an egg
intrauterine device (IUD) also known as a coil, prevent the implantation of an embryo or release of a hormone
spermicidal agents which kill or disable sperm
abstaining from intercourse when an egg may be in the oviduct
surgical methods of male and female sterilisation, an example is a vasectomy, where the sperm ducts are cut or tied
Benefits and risks
Condoms are easy and quick to use, but sometimes they can tear. They are also useful in preventing sexually transmitted disease.
Diaphragms need to be put in just before sex and left in several hours afterwards.
IUD need to be fitted by a health professional. IUD can remain in position for up to 10 years. However, there is a small risk of causing an ectopic pregnancy (where the embryo settles in a fallopian tube not the uterus).
Spermicidal agents can be added to other physical barriers such as condoms, but some people can have allergic reactions to these.