In 2020, the pay gap in the UK between men and women for full time workers was 7.4%. However, it is close to zero for full-time employees aged under 40.
In part time wok in the UK, women earn 2.9% more than men. (Source: Office for National Statistics).
Women are still seen by society as the primary carers of children and are often more attracted to caring jobs than men. Due to gender stereotyping, men are often reluctant to apply for jobs that involve looking after children or older people. There are for example many more female than male primary teachers in Scotland with 90% compared to 10%. It is better but still unequal in the secondary sector where there are 63% females and only 37% males.
Society in general puts a lower economic value on the contribution of carers than it does for positions in finance where men are most likely to be found. Jobs such as carers and those in cleaning, catering, cashiering and clerical are usually referred to as '5c' jobs.
Overwhelmingly female, they are often part-time and lack job security and other attractive features such as paid holidays and company pension plans. Six million women in the UK work part-time, which equates to 40% of all women who work. Women are also far more likely to work as unpaid carers, looking after relatives.
The glass ceiling refers to a situation where women can see the path to the jobs at the top of an organisation, but there are invisible barriers preventing them from obtaining these posts. This can often be referred to a woman's role in looking after children such as taking time out of a career to have children, the inflexibility to work late or get in early or to work weekends.