Hard engineering options tend to be expensive, short-term options. They may also have a high impact on the landscape or environment and be unsustainable.
A solid wall that is used to separate the land from the sea.
|Protects the base of cliffs, land and buildings against erosion. They can prevent coastal flooding in some areas.||Expensive to build and maintain. Curved sea walls reflect the energy of the waves back to the sea. This means that the waves remain powerful. Can also be unattractive.|
A groyne is a wooden barrier built at right angles to the beach.
|Prevents longshore drift moving beach material along the coast. Allows the build-up of a beach. Beaches are a natural defence against erosion and an attraction for tourists.||They can be unattractive. Costly to build and maintain.|
Gabions are large boulders piled up on the beach in steel cages.
|Absorb the energy of waves. Allows the build-up of a beach.||They can be expensive to obtain and transport the boulders. Can also look unattractive.|