The factors influencing development are often linked and countries can find themselves in a cycle of poverty. For example, if a country is in a lot of debt, it cannot afford good schools. If people are poorly educated they are less likely to understand the causes of desertification. Desertification leads to poor crop growth and low incomes. This leads back to the country accumulating debt and the cycle continues.
Kenya has little industry or energy reserves and has to import most of its manufactured goods, machinery, cars and oil. Parts of northern Kenya are desert but many areas in the south are favourable for agriculture. Subsistence farmers can grow sufficient food for their families and crops such as tea, coffee and flowers can be grown for export.
Japan is a major economic power in the world. Its companies have successfully used the countries of Southeast Asia as pools of low-cost labour. Japan imports most of its food, the raw materials needed for industry and its energy supplies. In order to pay for these imports, Japan exports a variety of manufactured goods.
(*In 2013, Japan had a trade deficit of approximately $28 billion US$.)