Emigration offered prosperity for Scots.


Land was plentiful. In the American West and Canada, land was offered on a loan basis. This attracted experienced farmers and labourers.

In Australia and New Zealand, cattle and sheep farming was a prosperous industry, so this possibility to make your fotune attracted many.

Gold rushes

Discovery of gold led to gold rushes:

  • Discovered in California in 1849.
  • Discovered in Australia in 1850.
  • Discovered in South Africa in 1855.
  • Gold rush begins in New Zealand in 1861.


New settlements needed new infrastructure, road networks, new administration centres, schools and churches - this created much employment. Wages were higher in the New World and living conditions were much improved.