Reversible reactions, ammonia and the Haber process

1

What is this symbol '⇌' used to represent?

2

What is produced in the backward reaction in this equilibrium, when the reaction goes from right to left: NH4Cl(s) ⇌ NH3(g) + HCl(g)?

3

What is the main source of the nitrogen used in the manufacture of ammonia?

4

What conditions of temperature and pressure are used in the industrial manufacture of ammonia?

5

The equation for the Haber process is N2 + 3H2 ⇌ 2NH3. What gases will be present at equilibrium?

6

What kind of catalyst is used in the Haber process?

7

One type of artificial fertilizer can be made by reacting ammonia with nitric acid.

Ammonia + nitric acid → ammonium nitrate

What kind of reaction is this?

8

At 450°C and 200 atmospheres pressure, the yield of ammonia produced is around 35%. How can the yield of ammonia be increased?

9

Which of the following reactions is a positive test for ammonia gas?

10

Nitrogenous fertilizers can cause increased growth of algae and other aquatic plants. These plants then die, leading to reduction of oxygen levels in the water as the plants are decomposed by bacteria. What name is given to this process?