The subjugation of Scotland
In 1296, Edward invaded Scotland in revenge for not helping him in France.
Action 1 - The Siege of Berwick
- On March 12 1296, Edward 1 besieged the Scottish town of Berwick.
- Edward gave the people of Berwick three days to surrender.
- They refused to surrended and made fun of him instead.
- Berwick was overrun and ransacked, and 10,000 of the population were killed.
Action 2 - The Battle of Dunbar
- In April, one of Edward I’s nobles, Earl Warenne of Surrey was sent to capture Dunbar Castle for the English.
- The Earl in control of the Castle had already agreed to surrender it, but his wife gave it to the Scottish forces.
- Warenne decided to meet the Scottish army in battle near the Castle. While the English troops were manoeuvring, the Scots mistook this for a retreat and attacked.
- The Scots were completely defeated because they had broken ranks.
- Many Guardians and Scottish nobles were captured.
Action 3 – King John surrenders
- By midsummer, Edward I had captured the majority of important Scottish castles, as far north as Elgin.
- King John had fled north towards his family’s lands.
- Even his own nobles would not support him.
- John surrendered to Edward on 10 July 1296.
Action 4 – The loss of Scottish independence
- Edward I removed the Royal Badge from King John’s clothing, after which John became known as 'Toom Tabard' (meaning 'Empty Coat').
- The English King also took the Scottish Crown Jewels, the Black Rood of St Margaret and the Stone of Destiny (or Stone of Scone), on which Scottish Kings were crowned.
- Edward broke John’s Royal Seal.
Action 5 – The Ragman Roll
- In August 1296, leading Scottish nobles and other important Scots swore a personal oath to the English king in writing - this document became known as the Ragman Roll.
- They were made to add their seals to the document which meant that they were accepting Edward as their overlord.
- Edward I of England was now in complete control of Scotland.