The perfect tense - formation

There are two parts to the perfect tense.

The first part is the present tense of the verb haber and the second part is the past participle. The past participle usually ends in -ed in English, eg watched, played, visited. Examples of phrases in the perfect tense include he visitado (I have visited) and hemos comprado (we have bought).

The past participle for -ar verbs is formed by removing the -ar ending from the infinitive and adding -ado, eg:

estudiar (to study) → estudiado (studied)

The past participle for -er and -ir verbs is formed by removing the -er or -ir ending from the infinitive and adding -ido, eg.:

comer (to eat ) → comido (eaten)

vivir (to live) → vivido (lived)

present tense of haber

+ past participle: visitado, hablado, bebido, etc.


What is the past participle of these verbs?

  1. cambiar (to change)
  2. permitir (to allow)
  3. aprender (to learn)
  4. parar (to stop)
  1. cambiado (changed)
  2. permitido (allowed)
  3. aprendido (learned)
  4. parado (stopped)

Irregular past participles

Some verbs have irregular past participles. For example:

infinitivepast participle
decir (to say)dicho
describir (to describe)descrito
escribir (to write)escrito
hacer (to make/do)hecho
poner (to put)puesto
ver (to see)visto
volver (to return)vuelto

If the sentence is negative, the no goes before both parts of the perfect tense, eg no he hecho mi trabajo (I haven't done my work).

When using an object pronoun, the pronoun goes in front of both parts of the perfect tense, eg lo han dicho (they have said it).

Complete the sentences with the correct form of haber.

  1. Laura _______________ vivido en tres países.
  2. Yo nunca _______________ probado la paella.
  3. Mi padre ________________ pagado la factura.
  4. Juanita y yo _______________ comido en ese restaurante.
  1. Laura ha vivido en tres paises (Laura has lived in three countries).
  2. Yo nunca he probado la paella (I have never tried paella).
  3. Mi padre ha pagado la factura (My father has paid the bill).
  4. Juanita y yo hemos comido en ese restaurante (Juanita and I have eaten in that restaurant).

Complete the sentences with both parts of the perfect tense.

  1. Mis amigos __________ _______________ (ir) de compras.
  2. Arturo __________ _______________ (estar) aquí por dos horas.
  3. Todavía yo no __________ _______________ (ver) la película.
  4. Pedro __________ _______________ (volver) esta mañana.
  1. Mis amigos han ido de compras (My friends have gone shopping).
  2. Arturo ha estado aquí por dos horas (Arturo has been here for two hours).
  3. Todavía yo no he visto la película (I still haven't seen the film).
  4. Pedro ha vuelto esta mañana (Pedro has returned this morning).
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