Push and pull factors

Migration can take place over short or long distances and it can be a one-way movement or temporary.

Some people choose to migrate (voluntary) or others may be forced to move (forced).

Photograph of people at an airport

  • Emigration is when people are leaving or exiting a country
  • Immigration is when people are moving into a country

Why do people migrate?

  • Economic migration - to find work or follow a particular career path.
  • Social migration - for a better quality of life or to be closer to family or friends.
  • Political migration - to escape political persecution or war.
  • Environmental - to escape natural disasters such as flooding.

A refugee is someone who has left their home and does not have a new home to go to. Often refugees do not carry many possessions and have no idea of where they may finally settle.

Push Factors are negative things that make people want to move to a new area e.g war

Pull Factors are positive aspects that attract people to move to a place e.g good employment opportunites

Migration usually happens as a result of a combination of these push and pull factors.

Push and pull factors in migration

Push factorsPull factors
Lack of services Better services
Low employment Higher employment
Lack of safety Safe society
High crime Less crime
Crop failure Fertile land
Drought Lower risk of natural hazards
Flooding Good climate
Poverty More wealth
War Political stability