Middle course features
In the middle course the river has more energy and a high volume of water. The gradient here is gentle and lateral (sideways) erosion has widened the river channel. The river channel has also deepened. A larger river channel means there is less friction, so the water flows faster:
- As the river erodes laterally, to the right side then the left side, it forms large bends, and then horseshoe-like loops called meanders.
- The formation of meanders is due to both deposition and erosion and meanders gradually migrate downstream.
- The force of the water erodes and undercuts the river bank on the outside of the bend where water flow has most energy due to decreased friction.
- On the inside of the bend, where the river flow is slower, material is deposited, as there is more friction.
- Over time the horseshoe become tighter, until the ends become very close together. As the river breaks through, eg during a flood when the river has a higher discharge and more energy, and the ends join, the loop is cut-off from the main channel. The cut-off loop is called an oxbow lake.
A meander and oxbow lake in the Amazon
Upstream a large bend becomes a horseshoe and is eventually cut-off to become an oxbow lake. Downstream the river is eroding its outer bank and depositing on its inner bank to create a new meander.