Group 0 elements

Group 0 contains non-metal elements placed in the vertical column on the far right of the periodic table. The elements in group 0 are called the noble gases. They exist as single atoms.

Periodic table with the Group 0 Noble Gases coloured in red.Group 0 is on the far right-hand side of the periodic table

Trends in physical properties

Melting and boiling point

The forces of attraction between single atoms is very weak so the noble gases all have low melting and boiling points. Melting and boiling points increase going down the group, as the atoms get larger.

The group 0 elements are in the gas state at room temperature and pressure. This is because their boiling points are below room temperature.

Bar chart of the boiling points of elements in Group 0The boiling points of group 0 elements
Question

Radon is situated below xenon in group 0. Predict the likely boiling point of radon.

The actual boiling point of radon is -61.7°C. An estimate would lie mid-way between -100°C and -50°C based on the shape of the graph.

Density

The density of a substance is its mass per unit volume. For example, a small piece of a substance with a high mass has a high density.

The particles in gases are widely spaced, so the noble gases have low densities. The density increases going down the group because the atoms have greater mass but the gas takes up the same volume.