Case study: coastal management - Holderness coastline
The Holderness coastline is located on the east coast of England. It is the fastest eroding coastline in Europe.
Reasons for management
The coastline is eroding at an average of 1.8 metres a year. There are several reasons why the coast at Holderness is eroding so rapidly:
Rock type - the cliffs are made from less-resistant boulder clay (made from sands and clays) which slumps when wet.
Naturally narrow beaches - these beaches give less protection to the coast as they don't reduce the power of the waves.
Man-made structures - groynes have been installed to stop longshore drift and build up the beaches in certain places. This narrows unprotected beaches elsewhere even further, as new sand does not come down to replace sand eroded by waves.
Powerful waves - waves at Holderness travel long distances over the North Sea (so have a long fetch) which means they will increase in energy.
Bridlington is protected by a 4.7 km long sea wall.
Hornsea is protected by a sea wall, groynes and rock armour.
Coastal management at Withersea has tried to make the beach wider by using groynes, and also uses a sea wall to protect the coast.
Mappleton is protected by rock groynes.
Spurn Head is protected with groynes and rock armour.
There has been an increase in erosion at Great Cowden because of the groynes used in Mappleton. This has led to farms being destroyed by the erosion and the loss of 100 chalets at the Golden Sands Holiday Park.
Some people disagree with where the sea defences have been located, especially if it means the land in their community is not protected.
Some sea defences negatively impact tourism and reduce the amount of money coming in to the area.