Science and technology can bring benefits to people's lives. A benefit is a positive effect of a product or a process.
How has genetic modification helped Type 1 diabetics?
Bacteria have been genetically modified to possess the human gene for insulin. As they grow, these transgenic microorganisms now produce human insulin. Type 1 diabetics use this to regulate their blood sugar.
A risk is an estimate of the likelihood that an undesired outcome will happen. The size of a risk is estimated based on the chance of it happening in a large sample, and over a specified length of time.
Advances in science and technology can bring risks. Scientists devise ways to reduce these risks.
For example - the burning of fossil fuels increases the emission of air pollutants such as carbon dioxide. This gas is a greenhouse gas. Increased emissions of greenhouse gases brings a risk to human health and of climate change.
Scientists have designed catalytic converters and gas scrubbers to help mitigate (reduce) these emissions.
What is a risk of genetic modification of crop plants?
Some people are worried that the genes that are inserted into crop plants might spread to wild plants creating 'superweeds'.